Classical Arabic

Alif

Hamzah همزة — glottal stop

brief pause in the throat as in uh-oh! or Cockney English lile (for little) (displayed wrong)

Alif maqṣūrah — broken alif (ىٰ)

Alif maqṣūrah is a special way of writing alif in some words. It is a proper ى without dots, but don’t confuse it for the identical-looking consonant? yāʾ when its dots are traditionally left out.

Alif maddah ألف مدة — lengthened alif (آ)

Long alif is written آ in Modern Standard Arabic. In Qurʾānic Arabic, it was written ءا.

آ

الألِف

مدة

آ

See also