Classical Arabic

Ḥarakah — vowel, vowel mark

حركة حركات
noun singular plural
romanization ḥarakah ḥarakāt
pronunciation ħærɑkæh

مصوتات = vowels?

Qaṣīr قصير — short vowel

Special marks called Ḥarakāt can be added above or below a consonant to show the short vowel that comes after it. The examples below attach the vowel after the letter d د.

These special symbols are not normally written in Arabic documents, books, newspapers, etc. They are provided as a teaching aid for correct pronunciation in the Qurʾān , books for students or children, etc.

with د
fatḥahدَastroke above
kasrah‎‎دِɪistroke below
ḍammahدُʊulittle curl
sukūnدْ oused to show that no vowel sound comes after the consonant

Ṭawīl طويل — long vowel

and diphthongs

fatḥah + alifaaāaAمَا
alif khanjarīyahaaā`raḥmān رحمٰن
fatḥah + alif maqṣūrahaaáaYʿĪsá عِيسَى
kasrah + yāʾ?iiīiyṢūfī صُوفِي
ḍammah + wāw?uuūuwwuḍūʾ وُضُوْء
aj ay like, pie
aw aw mouth

Short vowels + n

دٌ -un
دً -an
دٍ -in

More details

Vowel marks are a type of Tashkīl.