Classical Arabic

Makhraj (@mxrj@) — place of articulation

Makhraj (pl. Makhārij مخارج) literally means ‘way out’. In Islamic phonetics, it’s the place of articulation, i.e. where in the mouth (or throat) the sound is being made.

5 broad zones of articulation

Hāf حاف
uvular fricative khāʾ (خ), ghayn (غ)
pharyngeal ḥāʾ ح, ʿayn ع
glottal hamzah ء, hāʾ ه
Lisān لسان
uvular stop qāf ق
velar kāf ك
palato-alveolar (blade + back of alveolar rigde)? or palatal (front + palate) shīn ش, jīm ج, yāʾ ي
one side/edge of tongue with left upper teeth (usually left) ḍād ض
lateral lām ل
apico-alveolar (tip + alveolar ridge) nūn ن
apico-alveolar (tip + alveolar ridge) rāʾ ر
lamino-alveolar (blade + alveolar ridge) tāʾ ت, dāl د, ṭāʾ ط
dental thāʾ ث, dhāl ذ, ẓāʾ ظ
lips bilabial bāʾ ب
labiodental fāʾ ف
labial-velar wāw و
chest / empty space
in the mouth and throat

R not trilled fricative approx? Tip with upper portion d t T s S z Th dh third?

parts of tongue:

  • lamina = blade of tongue = surface of tongue just behind the tip, between apex and front
  • apex = tip of tongue
  • front = part of tongue between blade and back, articulating with palate
  • back or dorsum, rear portion