Classical Arabic

Phonetics

maharij = place of articulation

  • chest: 3 phonemes = the three vowels
  • throat: 6 letters from 3 areas
    • glottal: hamza and ha
    • pharyngeal: 3ayn 7a
    • uvular fricative: R X
  • tongue: 10 areas, 19 phonemes
  • lips: 2 areas, 4 phonemes
    • bilabial or labio-velar: b m w
    • labiodental: f

total 17 places of articulation

runna: nasal, nasalized?

  • istiʿlā: raising of tongue, 7 throat sounds + dark sounds
    • itbaaqa: (subset of above) closed-up sounds, ṣ ḍ ṭ ẓ , puckered up tongue? narrower tongue?
  • istifad: front letters

tafkhīm = 7 istiʿla letters +

  • produce a back vowel (mufakha) after
  • l and r
    • occasionaly front a, occasionally back a

l all are light except

  • Allāh, preceded by fatha or damma
    • -illāh is front

r

  • tafkhīm (heavy, back)
    • if there is fatha or damma on the r
  • tarqīq (light, front)
    • kasra

light:

  • hamzatulwasl = alif with squigly line? = stepping stone = invisible hamza = if word starts with sukun
    • yusuf:81 first word , r is "silent" (has a sukun)
    • 65:4 another example inirl

except heavy if:

  • nabal:21 -- silent r , but after it is an istila letter
  • 89:14 -- mirlsaad

silent r, and silent letter before it, then look at 3rd letter before it, take it's fatha or damma

  • e.g. the word 'fajr'
    • exceptino: if the word before it is silent ya
      • khayr?
  • qalqalah: moving, shaking, echoing = audible release
    • q ṭ b j d
    • occurs only with sukun, no vowel can follow
    • don't transform into fatha
    • a sort of rounded schwa? neutral vowel
    • middle of word: minor qalqalah
    • at end of word, stronger
    • if word has double letter shadda, qalqalah even stronger (longer?)