Classical Arabic

Sentences

Noun-based sentences

Nominal Sentences (الجملة الإسمية al-jumlatu 'l-ʼismiyya)

jumlāh ismīyah

mubdataʾ = subject of noun-based sentence, always definite khabar = predicate of noun-based sentence, always indefinite

Verb-based sentences

(الجملة الفعلية al-jumlatu 'l-fiʻliyya)

taʿīf = making something definite (e.g. subject of N-based sentence)

  • add al-
  • Iḍāfah (atachment, addition) — 'a booiḑk of Sonja'
    • muḍāf = attachee
    • muḍāfu ilayih = "of the student"

kitābu al-tilmīldhi aḥmarun

aḥmar = red

nakirah, if doesnt have mudafu ilayih gets nunated

vowel

jumlāh ismīyah with adjective

  • kitābu aḥmarun.

ṣarf = declension of roots, word formation?

-ation = ta + C1 + C2 + ī + C3

sifah? = adjective grammatical case agrees with the described (the noun)

-un damma damma 99 or 69

articles that turn the subject or predicate of N-based sentence into accusative

(inna and her sisters)

إِنّ

accusative particle

  • inna al-kitāba aḥmarun
    surely, the book is red

(kāna and her sisters)

  • kāna al-kitābu aḥmaran
    the book was red
  • (as if has effect of turning it into jumla fāalia)

-an is pronounced -ā unless another sentence