Nominal Sentences (الجملة الإسمية al-jumlatu 'l-ʼismiyya)
mubdataʾ = subject of noun-based sentence, always definite khabar = predicate of noun-based sentence, always indefinite
(الجملة الفعلية al-jumlatu 'l-fiʻliyya)
taʿīf = making something definite (e.g. subject of N-based sentence)
- add al-
- Iḍāfah (atachment, addition) — 'a booiḑk of Sonja'
- muḍāf = attachee
- muḍāfu ilayih = "of the student"
kitābu al-tilmīldhi aḥmarun
aḥmar = red
nakirah, if doesnt have mudafu ilayih gets nunated
jumlāh ismīyah with adjective
- kitābu aḥmarun.
ṣarf = declension of roots, word formation?
-ation = ta + C1 + C2 + ī + C3
sifah? = adjective grammatical case agrees with the described (the noun)
-un damma damma 99 or 69
articles that turn the subject or predicate of N-based sentence into accusative
(inna and her sisters)
- inna al-kitāba aḥmarun
surely, the book is red
(kāna and her sisters)
- kāna al-kitābu aḥmaran
the book was red
- (as if has effect of turning it into jumla fāalia)
-an is pronounced -ā unless another sentence