Islamic concepts

Dīn — (complete) way of life, comprehensive system, religion, accountability


دين السلم

The Dīn دين or ‘religion’ of Islam is a complete package that spans three dimensions:

dīn = debt, indebtedness; disciplining the soul; the day the debts fall due; day of reckoning; a rain that returns and gives earth back to life

  1. Do they seek a religion other than the religion of God, when everything in the heavens and the earth has submitted to Him, willingly or unwillingly? To Him they shall all return. 3:83 All of creation is in submission to Allāh, willingly or unwillingly. islam= The call to nature, we recognize. do certain things we cannot avoid. eat. relieve oneself. sleep ("gentle tyrant"). limitations you come to accept. accepting our limitations. reminder that everything emerges then returns to non-existence.
  2. Were you present when Jacob faced the hour of death and he asked his sons, ‘Who will you worship after me?’ They answered, ‘We will worship your God and the God of your fathers, Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac: the one God; we have submitted ourselves to Him.’ (2:133) -- not founded by Muḥammad ﷺ, religion of previous prophets, including those whose names we don't know.
  3. religion of prophet Muḥammad ﷺ: "I have perfected your dīn"
  4. death: the ghost reaches the throat; make it go back if you're in control; we keep delaying death 56:83-87

What is Islam?

  1. Declare
    • There’s none worthy of worship but the Divine
    • Muḥammad ﷺ was a humble servant and messenger of the Divine
  2. Pray five times a day
  3. Donate 2.5% of your surplus savings to the poor and needy
  4. Fast during Ramaḍān
  5. Make pilgrimage to Makkah

The concept of Dīn دين is broader than what we might call in English a religion. The Dīn of Islam is a complete way of life we can describe along three dimensions:

  • Worship (ʿIbādah), i.e. submission to Allāh (swt) (Islām)
  • ʿAqīdah: the belief system, i.e. belief/conviction (Īmān)
  • Taṣawwuf: inner spirituality, i.e. perfection (Iḥsān)

ʿIbādah 103:3 Except for those who have believed and done righteous deeds and advised each other to truth and advised each other to patience.

3 dimensions

“the life-transaction, lit. the debt between two parties, in this usage between the Creator and created.” (Aisha Bewley); lend, borrow, returning

In Islam, religion is defined as having three dimensions or levels:

Īmān — belief

A system of belief in:

Islām — The divine rules

Sharīʿah The rules that govern our external physical actions. Our understanding (Fiqh) of these can be subdivided into three areas:

  • ʿIbādah or Islām proper: how to worship and serve God via:
    • the Muslim pledge
    • daily prayer
    • philanthropy
    • self-control
    • pilgrimage
  • foo: the social rules and etiquette, how to interact with one another in a civil way
  • Muʿāmalāt: fair business dealings, financial transactions, marriage, women's rights to divorce, inheritance, etc.

Iḥsan — Inner spirituality

variously called Taṣawwuf (Sufism), Ihsān, purification of the heart?, ilm al-akhlaq

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