Islamic concepts

Fitnah — trouble, strife, turmoil, commotion, temptation, tribulations, problems, upheaval

turmoil, problems, trial, tribulation, test, trouble, disturbance

strife, test, commotion, temptation

also civil war

A trial or test to sift or separate the good from the bad.

Fitnah is worse than killing? 2:191


challenge, persecution, oppression, tumult, upheaval, chaos, drama?

modern arabic: causing problems between ppl

difference with balā?