ʿIlm means ‘science’ in the original Latin meaning of the word, i.e. knowledge, learning, study.
In modern English, the word science has narrowed to imply only the that study and test the physical world. ʿIlm is broader.
- Allāh will raise in rank those of you who believe and those who have been given knowledge: Allāh is fully aware of all that you do. 58:10
- He taught Adam all the names [of things], then He showed them to the angels and said, ‘Tell me the names of these if you truly [think you can].’ They said, ‘May You be glorified! We have knowledge only of what You have taught us. You are the All Knowing and All Wise.’ Then He said, ‘Adam, tell them the names of these.’ When he told them their names, God said, ‘Did I not tell you that I know what is hidden in the heavens and the earth, and that I know what you reveal and what you conceal?’ 2:31-33
ʿUlūm — branches of knowledge, fields of study
ʿUlūm al-Dunyawīyah العلوم الدنيوية — worldly sciences, natural sciences
- Ṭālib student
- ʿAql عقل — intellect, reason, logical thinking