ṣaḥābī, pl. ṣaḥābah
(m.pl. Ṣaḥābah صحابة, )
Is ṣāḥib the masculine singular and ṣāḥabah the masculine plural? Ṣāḥibah the feminine singular and ṣawāḥib/ṣawāḥibat the feminine plural? member of Prophet Muḥammad’s community
ṣaḥābiyy, feminine ṣaḥābiyyah.
Ṣaḥābah صحابة (Arabic: الصحابة, Ṣaḥābah, "Companions") we
- Met Prophet Muḥammad ﷺ
- Was a steadfast Muslim
- Died as a Muslim (did not leave Islam)
- Had (according to some scholars)
. In their view, the Quran has outlined a high level of faith as one of the distinctive qualities of the Sahabah. Hence, they admit to this list only those individuals who had substantial contact with the Prophet, lived with him, and took part in his campaigns and efforts at proselytizing. This view has implications in Islamic law since narrations of the Prophet transmitted through the Sahabah acquire a greater status of authenticity. Lists of prominent companions usually run to 50 or 60 names, being the people most closely associated with Muhammad. However, there were clearly many others who had some contact with Muhammad, and their names and biographies were recorded in religious reference texts such as Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi's (Muḥammad ibn Sa'd) early Kitāb at-Tabāqat al-Kabīr (The book of The Major Classes). The book entitled Istî’âb fî ma’rifat-il-Ashâb by Hafidh Yusuf bin Muhammad bin Qurtubi (death 1071) consists of 2,770 biographies of male and 381 biographies of female Sahaba. According to an observation in the book entitled Mawâhib-i-ladunniyya, an untold number of persons had already converted to Islam by the time Muhammad died. There were 10,000 by the time Mecca was conquered and 70,000 during the Battle of Tabouk in 630. Some Muslims assert that they were more than 200,000 in number: it is believed that 124,000 witnessed The Farewell Sermon Muhammad delivered after making his last pilgrimage (hajj) to Mecca. Two important groups among the companions are called the Muhajirun or "exiles" - those who had faith in Muhammad when he began to preach in Mecca who fled with him when he was persecuted there - and the Ansar - people of Medina who welcomed Muhammad and his companions and stood as their protectors. Chapter (sura) 9 of the Qur'an ("Repentance" (at-Tawba)), verse (ayah) 100 says; "The vanguard - the first of those who forsook (their homes) and of those who gave them aid, and those who follow them in good deeds, &ndash well-pleased is God with them, as are they with Him: for them hath He prepared gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein for ever: that is the supreme felicity." and continues; (ayat 117); "God turned with favour to the Prophet, the Muhajirs, and the Ansar who followed him in a time of distress – after that the hearts of a part of them had nearly swerved but He turned to them..."
Encyclopedias of companions and narrators
- al-Isaba fi tamyiz al-Sahaba by Ahmad ibn Ali Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani
- Tahdhib al-Kamal, the encyclopedia of hadith narrators by Yusuf ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Mizzi
- Tahdhib al-Tahdhib – an abbreviation of previous
- Taqrib al-Tahdhib – the abridgement of previous