“The word ṣamad bears several literal senses. Therefore, the Qurʾānic exegetical scholars have assigned different meanings to this verse. Ṭabarānī, the leading authority on Prophetic Traditions, in his kitāb us-Sunnah, has collected all the interpretations of the Divine attribute aṣ-ṣamad and concluded that they are all authentic, and comprehend all the attributes of our Lord that have been assigned to Him, but originally it refers to ‘the chief who has no superior and to whom the people turn for the fulfilment of their desires and needs; thus all people depend on him, but he does not depend on any one.’ [Ibn Kathīr].” (Maʿāriful Qurʾān, p. 916)
Samad: other commonly held interpretations include ‘self-sufficient’ and ‘sought by all’ (Razi).
- "absolute existence, which can be attributed only to Allah (swt), all other existence being temporal or conditional" (Zakir Naik) "Allah (swt) is not dependent on any person or thing, but all persons and things are dependent on Him." (Zakir Naik)