Islamic concepts

Uṣūl al-Fiqh — Islamic legal theory; principles of understanding the Islamic code

methodology, principles, fundamentals, theory (for understanding the Islamic code) roots

  • ʿĀm عام — general, applies to everyone
  • Khāṣ —
  • Mutlaq — unconditional generality, unspecified generality, applies to one person
  • Muqayyad — conditional
  • mantuq — explicitly mentioned in text, clear
  • mafghum — implied in the verse
  • Ḥaqīqī حقيقي — literal meaning (default interpretation in Arabic)
  • Majāzī مجازي — figurative, metaphorical meaning

Priorities of the Sharīʿah, to protect:

  • duruliat essentials, cannot live without
    1. Religion
    2. Human life
    3. Mental health
    4. Physical property and wealth
    5. Personal and family honour
  • Hajjiyat = Important and convenient but not life-essential, e.g. more clothes
  • al-Taḥsinīyat = perfection, e.g. good manners

evolution of fiqh, bilal philips