- legal implementation
- the science
Implementation into civil law
human interpretation and codification for civil law
Whether written or unwritten, every community agrees to follow a certain framework of rules to function together and treat each other in a civil and fair way.
The word connotes human and specifically scholarly activity.
Over the centuries, predominantly Muslim countries needed to properly integrate these religious values of the common people with the political need for a civil law system.
This extended Sharīʿah into a complex legal science called Fiqh, meaning 'full comprehension'. An expert in this legal code is called a Faqīh ('@فقيه@').
Fiqh (Arabic: فقه [fiqh]) is Islamic jurisprudence. Fiqh is an expansion of the Sharia Islamic law—based directly on the Quran and Sunnah—that complements Sharia with evolving rulings/interpretations of Islamic jurists.
Fiqh deals with the observance of rituals, morals and social legislation in Islam. There are four prominent schools of fiqh, the Madh'hab, within Sunni practice and two schools within Shi'a practice. A person trained in fiqh is known as a Faqih (plural Fuqaha).
Fiqh was later developed
Or religious law.
By contrast, sharīʿah refers to God 's law in its quality as divine. Loosely used, it can indicate Islam, God 's religion. It refers to God 's law as it is with him or with his Prophet, or as it is contained (potentially) within the corpus of revelation.
A scholar uses four sources:
- The Qur’an.
- The hadiths.
- The consensus of the sahaba (’Ijma).
- Independent reasoning (Qiyas).
bi shar’: a Persian term meaning “without Shari’a”, a term applied to those who disregard legal obligations.